A cow’s capacity to calve is a crucial thing for cow owners and breeders. Having a single calf is a usual thing we see, but what are the chances of a cow having twins?
That being said, a cow can have twins, although it is not the usual thing breeders or cow owners expect. However, as per the reports published by Kansas State University, around 1- 2% of cows’ pregnancies result in twins. Several reasons work behind causing a cow to have twins.
Here, we should note that cows that have birthed twins once have a high probability of gestating twins again.
Since calving twins is not a usual thing to witness among cows, especially among the breeds, it would be pretty exciting to analyze its underlying causes. Keeping this in mind, we have created this article where you would get answers to all your why’s, how’s, and when’s in the context of dams having twin calves.
Hence, without much ado, let’s begin our journey!
Signs of a cow having twins
A cow’s gestation period is an exciting time for cow owners and experts. But it may also cause apprehensions to wonder how many new calves will join the herd.
So, if you are eager to know if your cow is going to have a single calf or twins, look for the following signs:
- Early pregnancy: Your cow may get pregnant pretty early than is expected.
- High milk production: At least 14 days before ovulation, the milk production would be higher than usual.
- Shorter gestation period: Cows carrying twins may have a shorter gestation period of 274 days against the average period of 283 days.
- Ultrasound: An ultrasound between 45-and-90-days of gestation can also indicate the presence of two embryos.
Despite analyzing all the possible signs, cow experts state that until a cow gives birth, the producer may not know if there are one or more calves.
How often do cows have twins?
Multiple calving, although a rare scene but not impossible among bovines.
In fact, around 10% of all dairy calf conceptions result in twins. Nonetheless, this rate is much lesser among the other cows, around 1- 2 %.
What causes twins in cattle?
Cattle are a monotocous species, which implies that a successful and healthy pregnancy usually culminates in the birth of only one calf. But certain circumstances can lead to twin calving.
Several factors ranging from genetics to environmental can play some significant roles in causing a twin pregnancy. Let us explore some of them.
Twins are the consequence of a cow’s multiple ovulations or an embryo splitting earlier in its gestation.
Better feed quality can be directly correlated with multiple ovulations in cows. Studies have found that a better nutritional feed intake increases the blood flow through the liver, which subsequently reduces the amount of progesterone in the blood. A reduced progesterone level is more likely to cause double ovulation resulting in the formation of zygotic twins.
Matured cows with several lactations tend to have a higher chance of calving twins than heifers. Also, if a cow had twins once, the chances are high that it will have again calve twins in subsequent pregnancies.
A high level of milk production in the 14 days immediately before estrus can also increase the chance of double ovulation, resulting in twin calving.
Is it Common for Cow Twins to Survive?
By now, we have explored calving twins and why it may not be as rosy as it sounds. Twins tend to suffer from a lot of health issues, which may even affect their survival abilities.
That being said, the producers often would witness a lower survival rate among the calves born as twins. In addition, several health issues like a low weight at birth, can lead to high perinatal mortality rates among twin calves.
Here, it should be noted that the perinatal mortality rate is likely to be highest at 3.19% in the case of twin bull calves.
Why do cow twins have different markings?
It is very uncommon among cows to clave identical twins. In fact, less than 10% of twin claves are expected to be monozygotic or identical twins.
In the case of bovines, most twins are dizygous, occurring from the fertilization of two oocytes after ovulation. In other words, they are more like (half) siblings born at different stages of pregnancy by the same parents.
How long apart can a cow have twins?
Generally, we have the perception that twins are supposed to be born at the same time, one after another. But does this perception go well with cows?
Although uncommon, but one can find cows calving twins at different times. What we mean is that cows can have twin days or weeks apart. And the longest time gap between twinning can stretch as long as a month.
However, in such cases, calves are considered as half-siblings and not proper twins.
Can a cow have twins days apart?
It is interesting to note if cows can have twins days apart.
Cows can have twins days apart. By rule, a cow should calve twins on the day of parturition. However, if one of the twins is dead, the delivery of the dead calf can take 1 or 2 days. In such a situation, you may witness dead calf delivery days apart.
Can a cow have twins weeks apart?
Cows can calve twins, and they can give birth weeks apart. But would that be called twin calving?
As we have stated, it is an uncommon phenomenon that a cow can calve weeks apart, but it is not impossible. In such a situation, a cow tends to have two cycles, some weeks apart, and conceives during each cycle. As a result, it may birth each calf at its term, which may be weeks apart.
But such calves are not identified as twins but siblings.
Can a cow have triplets?
Although it is desirable that cows should have a single calf during each pregnancy, what are the chances for them to have triplets?
It is not at all impossible for cows to have triplets. That being said, it is infrequent for bovines to calve triplets, and once in 105,000 chances, you can find something like this.
We must also keep in mind that cows calving triplets are likely to have babies end up dying.
How often does a cow have triplets?
Calving triplets is not desirable among bovines, and also it is a rare case to be found.
As we have stated earlier, cows have once in 105,000 chance to calve triplets.
Twin calving is a natural phenomenon among cows. A cow can have twin calves and nurse them. But this phenomenon is considered detrimental in the case of dairy cows for reasons like premature calf deaths, clinical issues, etc. As a result, the focus has mainly been on managing the conditions that lead to twin calving.
That being said, if your cow is expecting twins, it is advisable to consult a vet at the earliest to manage the birthing condition, the health condition of the dam, and the twins after calving, and reduce the potentialities of perinatal mortality.